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This is Just a Few of the Negative Effects of Foster Care- Every Parent- Caseworker, Judge and Lawyer should have this

April 25, 2010 5 comments

The negative effects of foster care
Individuals who were in foster care experience higher rates of physical and psychiatric morbidity that the general population.[14] In a study of adults who were in foster care in Oregon and Washington state, they were found to have double the incidence of Depression ,20% as compared to 10% and were found to have a higher rate of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) than combat veterans with 25% of those studied having PTSD. Children in foster care have a higher probability of having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and deficits in executive functioning, anxiety as well other developmental problems.[15][16][17][18] These children experience higher degrees of incarceration, poverty, homelessness, and suicide. Recent studies in the U.S., suggests that, foster care placements are more detrimental to children than remaining in a troubled home.[19][20][21]

[edit] Neurodevelopment

Negative environmental influences affect various aspects of neurodevelopment, such the formation of neurons and dendrites.Foster care has been shown in various studies, to have deleterious consequences on the physical health and mental wellbeing of those who were in foster care. Many children enter foster care at a very young age. The human brain doesn’t fully develop until approximately the age of twenty, one of the most critical periods of brain development occurs in the first 3–4 years.

The processes that govern the development of personality traits, stress response and cognitive skills are formed during this period. The developing brain is directly influenced by negative environmental factors including lack of stimulation due to emotional neglect, poor nutrition, exposure to violence in the home environment and child abuse.

Negative environmental influences have a direct effect on all areas of neurodevelopment, neurogenesis (creation of new neurons), apoptosis (death and reabsorption of neurons), migration (of neurons to different regions of the brain), synaptogenesis (creation of synapses), synaptic sculpturing (determining the make-up of the synapse), arborization (the growth of dendritic connections , myelinzation (protective covering of neurons), an enlargement of the brain’s ventricles and can cause cortical atrophy. Most of the processes involved in healthy neurodevelopment are predicated upon the establishment of close nurturing relationships and environmental stimulation. Foster children have elevated levels of cortisol, a stress hormone in comparison to children raised by their biological parents, elevated cortisol levels can compromise the immune system. (Harden BJ, 2004).[22] Negative environmental influences during this critical period of brain development can have lifelong consequences.[23][24][25][26]

[edit] Epigenetic effects of environmental stress

epigentic mechanismsEpigenetics is the effect environmental factors have on gene expression. Negative environmental influences such as maternal deprivation, child abuse and stress[27][28] have been shown to have a profound effect on gene expression including transgenerational epigenetic effects in which physiological and behavioral (intellectual) transfer of information across generations not yet conceived is effected. In the Överkalix study in Sweden the effects of epigentic inheritance were shown to have a direct correlation to the environmental influences faced by the parents and grandparents. [29] Many physiological and behavioral characteristics ascribed to Mendelian inheritance is due in fact to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The implications in terms of foster care and the cost to society as a whole is that the stress, deprivation and other negative environmetal factors many foster children are subjected to has a detrimental effect not only their physical, emotional and cognitive well-being but the damage can transcend generations.[30][31][32]

In studies of the adult offspring of Holocaust survivors, parental PTSD was risk factor for the development of PTSD in adult offspring in comparison to those whose parents went through the Holocaust without developing PTSD. The offspring of survivors with PTSD had lower levels urinary cortisol excretion, salivary cortisol and enhanced plasma cortisol suppression in response to low dose dexamethasone administration than offspring of survivors without PTSD. Low cortisol levels are associated with parental, particularly maternal, PTSD. This is in contrast to the normal stress response in which cortisol levels are elevated after exposure to a stressor. The results of the study point to the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.[33][34]

Epigenetic Effects of Abuse;
“In addition, the effects of abuse may extend beyond the immediate victim into subsequent generations as a consequence of epigenetic effects transmitted directly to offspring and/or behavioral changes in affected individuals. (Neighh GN et al. 2009)[35]

It has been suggested in various studies that the deleterious epigentic effects may be somewhat ameliorated through pharmacological manipulations in adulthood via the administration of nerve growth factor-inducible protein A,[36] and through the inhibition of a class of enzymes known as the histone deacetylases (HDACs). “HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) such as Trichostatin A (TSA); “TSA can be used to alter gene expression by interfering with the removal of acetyl groups from histones”, and L-methionine an essential amino acid, have been developed for the treatment of a variety of malignancies and neurodegenerative disorders. Drug combination approaches have also shown promise for the treatment of mood disorders including bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression.”[37][38]

[edit] Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Regions of the brain associated with stress and post traumatic stress disorder[39]Children in foster care have a higher incidence of Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).In one study (Dubner and Motta, 1999)[40] 60% of children in foster care who had experienced sexual abuse had PTSD, and 42% of those who had been physically abused fulfilled the PTSD criteria. PTSD was also found in 18% of the children who were not abused. These children may have developed PTSD due to witnessing violence in the home.(Marsenich, 2002).

In a study conducted in Oregon and Washington state, the rate of PTSD in adults who were in foster care for one year between the ages of 14-18 was found to be higher than that of combat veterans, with 25 percent of those in the study meeting the diagnostic criteria as compared to 12-13 percent of Iraq war veterans and 15 percent of Vietnam war veterans, and a rate of 4% in the general population. The recovery rate for foster home alumni was 28.2% as opposed to 47% in the general population.

“More than half the study participants reported clinical levels of mental illness, compared to less than a quarter of the general population”.[41][42]

[edit] Eating disorders
Foster children are at increased risk for a variety of eating disorders, in comparison to the general population.

Obesity children in foster care are more prone to becoming overweight and obese, and in a study done in the United Kingdom, 35% of foster children experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) once in care.[43]

Hyperphagic Short Stature syndrome (HSS) is a condition characterized by short stature due to insufficient growth hormone production , an excessive appetite (hyperphagia) and mild learning disabilities. While it is believed to have genetic component, HSS is triggered by being exposed to an environment of high psychosocial stress, it is not uncommon in children in foster homes or other stressful environments. HSS improves upon removal from the stressful environment.[44][45][46]

Food Maintenance Syndrome is characterized by a set of aberrant eating behaviors of children in foster care it is “a pattern of excessive eating and food acquisition and maintenance behaviors without concurrent obesity”, it resembles “the behavioral correlates of Hyperphagic Short Stature”. (Tarren-Sweeney M. 2006). It is hypothesised that this syndrome is triggered by the stress and maltreatment foster children are subjected to, it was prevalent amongst 25 percent of the study group in New Zealand.[47]

Bulimia Nervosa is seven times more prevalent among former foster children than in the general population. [48]

[edit] Disorganized attachment
A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants in his study exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment.[49][50] Children with histories of maltreatment, such as physical and psychological neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse, are at risk of developing psychiatric problems.[51][52][53][54] These children may be described as experiencing trauma as the result of abuse or neglect, inflicted by a primary caregiver, which disrupts the normal development of secure attachment. Such children are at risk of developing a disorganized attachment.[53][55][56] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms,[57] as well as depressive, anxiety, and acting-out symptoms.[58][59]

[edit] Child abuse
Children in foster care experience high rates of child abuse, emotional and physical neglect. In one study in the United Kingdom “foster children were 7-8 times and children in residential care 6 times more likely to be assessed by a pediatrician for abuse than a child in the general population”.[60]

[edit] Poverty and homelessness

New York street children; Jacob Riis, 1890Nearly half of foster kids in the U.S. become homeless when they turn 18.[61][62] Most foster care children should be placed in adoptive homes. “One of every 10 foster children stays in foster care longer than seven years, and each year about 15,000 reach the age of majority and leave foster care without a permanent family—many to join the ranks of the homeless or to commit crimes and be imprisoned.[63][64]

Three out of ten of the United States homeless are former foster children.[65] According to the results of the Casey Family Study of foster Care Alumni up to 80 percent are doing poorly with a quarter to a third of former foster children at or below the poverty line, three times the national poverty rate.[66] Very frequently, people who are homeless had multiple placements as children: some were in foster care, but others were “unofficial” placements in the homes of family or friends. Individuals with a history foster care tend to become homeless at an earlier age than those who were not in foster care and Caucasians who become homeless are more likely to have a history of foster care than Hispanics or African Americans. The length of time a person remains homeless is prolonged in indiviuals who were in foster care.[67]

[edit] Suicide rate
Children in foster care are at a greater risk of suicide,[68] the increased risk of suicide is still prevalent after leaving foster care. Those who spent time in foster care have a higher incidence of suicide than the general populatiion. In a study of Texas youths who aged out of the system 23 percent had a history of suicide attempts.[69]

A Swedish study utilizing the data of almost one million people including 22,305 former foster children who had been in care prior to their teens;
“Former child welfare clients were in year of birth and sex standardised risk ratios (RRs) four to five times more likely than peers in the general population to have been hospitalised for suicide attempts….Individuals who had been in long-term foster care tended to have the most dismal outcome…former child welfare/protection clients should be considered a high-risk group for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity.”[70]
[edit] Death rate
Children in foster care have an overall higher mortality rate than children in the general population.[71] A study conducted in Finland among current and former foster children up to age 24 found a higher mortality rate due to substance abuse, accidents, suicide and illness. The deaths due to illness were attributed to an increased incidence of acute and chronic medical conditions and developmental delays among children in foster care.[72]

[edit] Poor academic prospects
Foster care has been proven in innumerable studies to not be conducive to academic performance. In a study conducted in Philadelphia by John Hopkins University it was found that; among high school students who are in foster care, have been abused and neglected, or receive out of home placement by the courts, the probability of dropping out of school is greater than 75%.[73]

Educational outcomes of ex-foster children in the Northwest Alumni Study;
56% completed high school compared to 82% of the general population, although an additional 29% of former foster children received a G.E.D. and an additional 5% of the general population.
42.7% completed some education beyond high school.
20.6% completed any degree or certificate beyond high school
16.1% completed a vocational degree; 21.9% for those over 25.
1.8% complete a bachelors degree , 2.7% for over 25, the completion rate for the general population in the same age group is 24%, a sizable difference.

[edit] State abuses
[edit] Drug testing
Throughout the 1990s, experimental HIV drugs were tested on HIV-positive foster children at Incarnation Children’s Center in Harlem. The agency has also been accused of racism, some comparing the trials to the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, as 98 percent of children in foster care in New York City belong to ethnic minorities.[74]

[edit] Unnecessary/Over Medication
Studies”[75] have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate that was 3 times higher than that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. In a review of (September 2003 to August 2004),Among 32,135 Texas foster care 0–19 years-old, 12,189 were prescribed psychotropic medication, resulting in an annual prevalence of 37.9% of these children being prescribed medication. 41.3% received 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%).

Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication, and it was noted in the review of these cases that the use of expensive, brand name, patent protected medication was prevalent. In the case of SSRIs the use of the most expensive medications was noted to be 74%, in the general market only 28% are for brand name SSRI’s vs generics. The average out-of-pocket expense per prescription was $34.75 for generics and $90.17 for branded products, a $55.42, difference.[76]

Medicating Foster Kids For Profit
CONCLUSIONS. “Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety”.[75]
[edit] The lost children

Children victimized by the United Kingdom’s Childrens Migrant ProgrammeAn estimated 150,000 British children were sent to overseas colonies and countries in the commonwealth such as Australia. This practice was in effect from the beginning of the nineteenth century until 1967. Many of these children were sent to orphanages, foster homes and religious institutions, where they were used as a free source of labor and many were severely abused and neglected. These children were classified as orphans although most were not. In the period after World War II the policy was dubbed the “Child Migrants Programme”. The prime consideration was money as it was cheaper to care for children in commonwealth countries than it was in the United Kingdom. This program was carried out with the complicity of the Methodist Church, the Catholic Church and the Salvation Army among others. At least 10,000 children some as young as 3 were shipped to Australia after the war,[77][78], most to join the ranks of the “Forgotten Australians”, the term given for those who experienced care in foster homes and institutions in the 20th century. Among these Forgotten Australians were members of the “Stolen Generation”, the children of Australian Aborigines, forcibly removed from their homes and raised in white institutions. In 2009 Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd apologised to the approximately 500,000 “forgotten Australians” and in 2010 British Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a similar apology to those who were victimised by the Child Migrants Programme.[79][80][81]

[edit] Therapeutic Intervention
The negative physical, psychological, cognitive and epigenetic effects of foster care have been established in innumerable studies in various countries. The Casey Family Programs Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study was a fairly extensive study into various aspects of the psychosocial effects of foster care noted that 80% of ex-foster children are doing “poorly”.

[edit] Neuroplasticity
The human brain however has been shown to have a fair degree of neuroplasticity.[82][83][84] Adult Neurogenesis, has been shown to be an ongoing process.[85]

“… all those experiences are of much significance which show how the judgment of the senses may be modified by experience and by training derived under various circumstances, and may be adapted to the new conditions…” – Hermann von Helmholtz, 1866

While having a background in foster homes especially in instances of sexual abuse can be the precipitating factor in a wide variety of psychological and cognitive deficits such as ADHD,[86] and PTSD[87][88] it may also serve to obfuscate the true cause of any underlying issues, there should be no automatic assumptions, it may have nothing to do with, or may be exacerbated by having a history of foster care and the attendant abuses.

[edit] See also
Adoption and Safe Families Act
Attachment theory
Child Welfare
Crown ward
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder
Foster care adoption
Legal guardian
Reactive attachment disorder
Residential education
Aging out
Fosterage
[edit] References
^ Dorsey et Al. Current status and evidence base of training for foster and treatment foster parents
^ Children’s Bureau Website – Child Welfare Monitoring
^ Richard Barth, Institutions vs. Foster Homes, the Empirical Base for a Century of Action (University of North Carolina, Jordan Institute for Families, February 17, 2002; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on children’s mental health: A national action agenda. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office, 2000.USGPO
^ Child Abuse is Child Protection is Mental Health Treatment is Drugging Children
^ 1992-93 Santa Clara County Grand Jury, Final Report, Investigation: Department Of Family And Children’s Services, 1993.
^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/1602402 Judith K. McKenzie Adoption of Children with Special Needs, Brookings Institution: The Future of Children, Vol. 3, No. 1, Adoption (Spring, 1993), pp. 62-76
^ Children’s Bureau Express Online Digest:
^ U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Child Maltreatment, 2004, Figure 3-2, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm04/figure3_2.htm
^ As of March, 1998, four months after ASFA became law, there were 520,000 children in foster care, (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, AFCARS Report #1, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/tar/report1/ar0199.htm). It took until September 30, 2005, for the number to fall to 513,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Trends in Foster Care and Adoption, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/afcars/trends.htm.
^ Children’s Defense Fund, Fostering Connection to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act: Overview, http://www.childrensdefense.org/helping-americas-children/child-welfare/fostering-connection-success-increasing-adoptions-act-overview.html.
^ National Conference of State Legislatures, NCSL Summary: Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008, http://www.ncsl.org/statefed/humserv/SummaryHR6893.htm.
^ a b c d e f Microsoft Word – 071108 Child protection 05-06 printers copy.doc
^ Lawlink NSW: Research Report 7 (1997) – The Aboriginal Child Placement Principle
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^ Pears K, Fisher PA. Developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: associations with prior maltreatment and placement history. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2005 Apr;26(2):112-22.PMID 15827462
^ Tarren-Sweeney M, Hazell P. Mental health of children in foster and kinship care in New South Wales, Australia. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006 Mar;42(3):89-97. PMID 16509906
^ Pecora PJ, Jensen PS, Romanelli LH, Jackson LJ, Ortiz A.Mental health services for children placed in foster care: an overview of current challenges. Child Welfare. 2009;88(1):5-26.PMID 19653451
^ Foster Children and ADHD: Anger, Violence, and Institutional Power Journal of Medical Humanities Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 1041-3545 (Print) 1573-3645 (Online) Issue Volume 21, Number 4 / December, 2000 DOI 10.1023/A:1009073008365
^ Microsoft Word – doyle_fosterlt_march07.doc
^ Study: Troubled homes better than foster care – USATODAY.com
^ Lawrence CR, Carlson EA, Egeland B. The impact of foster care on development. Dev Psychopathol. 2006 Winter;18(1):57-76.PMID 16478552
^ Harden BJ.Safety and stability for foster children: a developmental perspective. Future Child. 2004 Winter;14(1):30-47.PMID 15072017
^ American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Early Childhood and Adoption and Dependent Care. Developmental issues for young children in foster care. Pediatrics. 2000 Nov;106(5):1145-50. PMID 11061791
^ Silverman AB, Reinherz HZ, Giaconia RM.The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: a longitudinal community study. Child Abuse Negl. 1996 Aug;20(8):709-23.PMID 8866117
^ Bourgeois JP.Brain synaptogenesis and epigenesis Med Sci (Paris). 2005 Apr;21(4):428-33.PMID 15811309
^ Childhood Experience and the Expression of Genetic Potential: What childhood neglect tells about nature versus nurture. Perry, BD. (2002)Article
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^ McGowan PO et al. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Mar;12(3):342-8.PMID 19234457
^ Meaney MJ, Szyf M.Environmental programming of stress responses through DNA methylation: life at the interface between a dynamic environment and a fixed genome. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2005;7(2):103-23. PMID 16262207
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^ Bohnen N, Nicolson N, Sulon J, Jolles J. Coping style, trait anxiety and cortisol reactivity during mental stress. J Psychosom Res. 1991;35(2-3):141-7.PMID 2046048
^ Yehuda R, Bierer LM. Transgenerational transmission of cortisol and PTSD risk. Prog Brain Res. 2008;167:121-35.PMID 18037011
^ Neigh GN, Gillespie CF, Nemeroff CB. The neurobiological toll of child abuse and neglect. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2009 Oct;10(4):389-410. Epub 2009 Aug 6.PMID 19661133
^ Weaver IC. et al Reversal of maternal programming of stress responses in adult offspring through methyl supplementation: altering epigenetic marking later in life. J Neurosci. 2005 Nov 23;25(47):11045-54.PMID 16306417
^ Kalin JH. Creating zinc monkey wrenches in the treatment of epigenetic disorders. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009 Jun;13(3):263-71. Epub 2009 Jun 21. PMID 19541531
^ Weaver IC, Meaney MJ, Szyf M. Maternal care effects on the hippocampal transcriptome and anxiety-mediated behaviors in the offspring that are reversible in adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3480-5. Epub 2006 Feb 16.PMID 16484373
^ “NIMH · Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Fact Sheet”. National Institutes of Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-research-fact-sheet/index.shtml.
^ Dubner AE, Motta RW. Sexually and physically abused foster care children and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999 Jun;67(3):367-73.PMID 10369057
^ Casey Family Programs, Harvard Medical School (2005.04.05). “Former Foster Children in Oregon and Washington Suffer Posttraumatic Stress Disorder at Twice the Rate of U.S War Veterans”[1]. Retrieved 2010.03.23.
^ One in four foster children suffers from post-traumatic stress, study finds
^ Hadfield SC, Preece PM. Obesity in looked after children: is foster care protective from the dangers of obesity? Child Care Health Dev. 2008 Nov;34(6):710-2. PMID 18959567
^ Gilmour J, Skuse D, Pembrey M. Hyperphagic short stature and Prader–Willi syndrome: a comparison of behavioural phenotypes, genotypes and indices of stress Br J Psychiatry. 2001 Aug;179:129-37.PMID 11483474
^ Skuse D, Albanese A, Stanhope R, Gilmour J, Voss L. A new stress-related syndrome of growth failure and hyperphagia in children, associated with reversibility of growth-hormone insufficiency. Lancet. 1996 Aug 10;348(9024):353-8 PMID 8709732
^ Demb JM.Reported hyperphagia in foster children. Child Abuse Negl. 1991;15(1-2):77-88. PMID 2029675
^ Tarren-Sweeney M. Patterns of aberrant eating among pre-adolescent children in foster care. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2006 Oct;34(5):623-34.PMID 17019630
^ Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study
^ Carlson, V., Cicchetti, D., Barnett, D., & Braunwald, K. (1995). Finding order in disorganization: Lessons from research on maltreated infants’ attachments to their caregivers. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 135-157). NY: Cambridge University Press.
^ Cicchetti, D., Cummings, E.M., Greenberg, M.T., & Marvin, R.S. (1990). An organizational perspective on attachment beyond infancy. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & M. Cummings (Eds), Attachment in the Preschool Years (pp. 3-50). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
^ Gauthier, L., Stollak, G., Messe, L., & Arnoff, J. (1996). Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning. Child Abuse and Neglect 20, 549-559
^ Malinosky-Rummell, R. & Hansen, D.J. (1993) Long term consequences of childhood physical abuse. Psychological Bulletin 114, 68-69
^ a b Lyons-Ruth K. & Jacobvitz, D. (1999) Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss, relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.) Handbook of Attachment. (pp. 520-554). Publisher: The Guilford Press; 1 edition (August 13, 1999) Language: English ISBN 1-57230-480-4 ISBN 978-1-57230-480-2
^ Greenberg, M. (1999). Attachment and Psychopathology in Childhood. In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.). Handbook of Attachment (pp.469-496). NY: Guilford Press
^ Solomon, J. & George, C. (Eds.) (1999). Attachment Disorganization. Publisher: The Guilford Press; 1 edition (August 13, 1999) Language: English ISBN 1-57230-480-4 ISBN 978-1-57230-480-2
^ Main, M. & Hesse, E. (1990) Parents’ Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Ciccehetti, & E.M. Cummings (Eds), Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research, and Intervention (pp161-184). Chicago: University of Chicago Press
^ Carlson, E.A. (1988). A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment. Child Development 69, 1107-1128
^ Lyons-Ruth, K. (1996). Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64, 64-73
^ Lyons-Ruth, K., Alpern, L., & Repacholi, B. (1993). Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom. Child Development 64, 572-585
^ Hobbs GF, Hobbs CJ, Wynne JM. Abuse of children in foster and residential care. Child Abuse Negl. 1999 Dec;23(12):1239-52. PMID 10626608
^ Pasadena Weekly – Throwaway kids
^ Saving foster kids from the streets / As the nation faces a new wave of homeless children, Larkin youth center helps provide a transition to adulthood
^ Current Controversies: Issues in Adoption. Ed. William Dudley. Publisher: Greenhaven Press; 1 edition (December 19, 2003) Language: English ISBN 0-7377-1626-6 ISBN 978-0-7377-1626-9
^ Lopez P, Allen PJ. Addressing the health needs of adolescents transitioning out of foster care.Pediatr Nurs. 2007 Jul-Aug;33(4):345-55. PMID 17907736
^ V.Roman, N.P. & Wolfe, N. (1995). Web of failure: The relationship between foster care and homelessness. Washington, DC: National Alliance to End Homelessness.
^ 80 Percent Failure A Brief Analysis of the Casey Family Programs Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study
^ Web of Failure: The Relationship Between Foster Care and Homelessness, Nan P. Roman, Phyllis Wolfe, National Alliance to End Homelessness
^ Charles G, Matheson J. Suicide prevention and intervention with young people in foster care in Canada. Child Welfare. 1991 Mar-Apr;70(2):185-91.PMID 2036873
^ Improving Outcomes for Older Youth
^ Vinnerljung B, Hjern A, Lindblad F. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;47(7):723-33. Suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare clients–a national cohort study.PMID 16790007
^ Death rates among California’s foster care and former foster care populations, Barth doi:10.1016/S0190-7409(98)00027-9
^ Mirjam Kalland et al Mortality in children registered in the Finnish child welfare registry: population based study BMJ. 2001 July 28; 323(7306): 207–208. PMCID: PMC35273
^ *Unfulfilled Promise: The Dimensions and Characteristics of Philadelphia’s Dropout Crisis, 2000-05,”[2]
^ The Indypendent » Incarnation Controversy Simmers: City’s Agency Handling of HIV Kids Still Questioned by Foster Parents
^ a b Zito JM. et al.Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):e157-63.PMID 18166534
^ Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2008 April; 5(4): 25–26. PMCID: PMC2719553 Elisa F. Cascade and Amir H. Kalali, MD Generic Penetration of the SSRI Market
^ The Lost Children
^ childhood of Laurie Humphreys, British migrant sent to Australia
^ British Child Migration to Australia: History, Senate Inquiry and Responsibilities
^ Australia ‘sorry’ for child abuse
^ Gordon Brown apologises to British children who were abused after being sent abroad to start better life.
^ Johansen-Berg H Structural plasticity: rewiring the brain. Curr Biol. 2007 Feb 20;17(4):R141-4. PMID 17307051
^ Duffau H. Brain plasticity: from pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications. J Clin Neurosci. 2006 Nov;13(9):885-97. Epub 2006 Oct 17. PMID 17049865
^ Holtmaat A, Svoboda K. Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009 Sep;10(9):647-58.PMID 19693029
^ Ge S, Sailor KA, Ming GL, Song H. J Physiol. 2008 Aug 15;586(16):3759-65. Epub 2008 May 22. Synaptic integration and plasticity of new neurons in the adult hippocampus.PMID 18499723
^ Chen CY, Gerhard T, Winterstein AG. Determinants of initial pharmacological treatment for youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009 Apr;19(2):187-95. PMID 19364296
^ Dubner AE, Motta RW. Sexually and physically abused foster care children and posttraumatic stress disorder.J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999 Jun;67(3):367-73. PMID 10369057
^ Weinstein D, Staffelbach D, Biaggio M. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: differential diagnosis in childhood sexual abuse. ADHD Clin Psychol Rev. 2000 Apr;20(3):359-78. PMID 10779899
[edit] Further reading
Hurley, Kendra (2002). “Almost Home” Retrieved Jun. 27, 2006.
Carlson, E.A. (1998). A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/disoriented attachment. Child Development 69, 1107–1128
Knowlton, Paul E. (2001). “The Original Foster Care Survival Guide”; A first person account directed to successfully aging out of the foster care.
[edit] External links
The Mental Health of Children in Out-of-Home Care: Scale and Complexity of Mental Health Problems
Effects of Enhanced Foster Care on the Long-term Physical and Mental Health of Foster Care Alumni

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foster_care

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